English Summary 2-3/2017 Islám

English Summary – Islam

Lukáš Nosek
The hermeneutical key for the Christian view on Islam
This study presents the interpretation of the Islamic faith in the Qur’an and the characteristics of the islamic concept of the Word of God. Further steps presents the traditionally accepted process of revelation to Muhammad, where the author particularly notices the role of the angel Gabriel. In the second part, author applies conclusions of the first part to parallels of Islam with Christianity. Author rejects the traditional comparison of the Christian Bible with the Islamic Qur’an, as well as the role of Muhammad in Islam with Jesus in Christianity. In conclusion, author proposes to compare the Islamic approach to the Qur’an with the Christian faith in Jesus Christ and his Eucharistic presence. The study also suggests a possible comparison of the role of Muhammad with the figure and role of the Virgin Mary in Christianity.

Christian W. Troll
Islam from the perspective of Christian theology
The German Jesuit and islamologist looks for the contact points for the Christian-Muslim dialogue and at the same time points out the substantial differences, which must not be ignored. He introduces the Christian perspective of Qur’an, defines the place of Abraham in the Islamic faith and he ponders in which sense we can say that Muslims and Christians worship the same God. Alongside the positive aspects of Islam, such as the sense for the transcendence and the absolute, prayer, fasting and alms-giving, it is also necessary to take into consideration the negative aspects, especially the different perception of the figure and role of Christ and his Redeeming Work.

Giuseppe Scattolin
God in Islam
The Italian Comboni priest and islamologist brings forward in his text some of the main lines of the Islamic thinking and compares them with the corresponding Christian view. He notices especially the centrality of God’s name in the life and history of Islam. He also introduces Islamic pure monotheism and the place of Abraham, who was the first monotheist, in the Muslim tradition. He analyses, in detail, the issue of God’s oneness and His inner unity from the perspective of Islam and he introduces ninety nine most beautiful names of God. He notices the paradoxes in thinking about God, which manifest themselves in the questions of relation between the Absolute and relative, unity and plurality in God, compassion and at the same time the indifference of God towards his creation. With this questions in the background he also compares Islamic monotheism with Christian Trinitarian theology.

Maurizio Borrmans
The Muslims facing the mystery of the Cross
Refusal or misunderstanding?
The author pursues the key problem of the dialogue between the Christians and the Muslims, and particularly their negative relation towards the fact of the crucifixion and the mystery of the Cross in general. He goes through the Qur’an, historic and theological reasons for the refusal of the crucifixion (refusing which is not consistently illogical). Subsequently, he introduces the ways how a Christian can explain his faith to a Muslim and be not only respected but also understood.

Luis Gardet-Georges Anawati
The introduction to Islamic theology
Essay from Comparative theology
The authors pursue the Islamic orthodox philosophical and theological system kalam, to which they do not deny its focus on reason. On the contrary, very early its representatives were able to distinguish their “faith of knowledge” from “the faith of tradition” of the simple folk, thanks to the work of their intellect and the results which it brought to them. This study explores, how to understand this action and in which boundaries it developed. The study comes to the conclusion, that in kalam, there is no analogy to the Christian development of theology as a science, which defines its principals, its light, its method, its subject and its nature of submitted knowledge. A Muslim theologian does not build his “scientific system” on “what was revealed”, but brings arguments to prove, or at least to confirm, the facts which are religious realities.

Alberto Fabio Ambrosio
The Castle of God is the Centre of the Dervish’s Soul
The Italian Dominican, expert in Sufism, introduces in his work the order of Mevlevi, one of the most important Sufi order in the Ottoman Empire. He analyses two main elements of Mevlevi practices: the metaphor of God´s castle and the ritual technique of permanent repetition of one of God’s name, which is symbolised exactly by that God´s castle and by dwelling inside the divine space. The ritual of invocation of God in heart is deeply rooted in the Muslim profession of faith “There is no God but God”, the Mevlevi faith and culture is valued by many as the symbol of the fundamental faith of Islam: profession of God’s oneness.

Carlo Maria Martini
We and Islam
From acceptance to dialogue
The Italian cardinal and the archbishop of Milan (1979–2002) in his talk for the parish and the city of Milan on the 6th of December 1990 reflects how the phenomenon of Islam influences the life in Milan and in Europe. He tries to formulate answers for the four elementary questions: How should the Christians think about Islam as a religion today? Will Islam be secularised in Europe too? What kind of dialogue and what inter-religious relations are possible between Christianity and Islam in Europe today? Will the Church be forced to abandon the proclamation of the Gospel to the followers of Islam? In his considerations he relies on the council documents Lumen gentium and Nostra aetate, on the findings from the life of the Church from saint Ambrose and on the practical experiences of today´s archdiocese in Milan. According to him, the task of the Christians is to try to understand Islam, to be open, as much as possible, to accepting the others and to a potential dialogue, but without giving up the authentic values and on the contrary they should deepen the meaning of the Gospel.

The Christian perspective of Islam
Pastoral aid from the Sicilian bishop’s conference
The document of the Sicilian bishop´s conference shows the practical church dimension of the relation with Islam in the country, where the Muslim minority is clearly present. It speaks about the question to have a Christian view on Islam and from the evidence of the real experience deals with the multiple identity of Islam. It highlights the closeness of Islam to other Biblical religions (Islam as a third way). He considers the question of religious believes in Italian law system. He names the factors, which come out from the history of Islamic-christian relation.

Norbert Schmidt
Navid Kermani and his friendly astonishment by Christianity
The author introduces the personality and the present work of the distinct and appreciated representative of the German pro-Western and pro-Europe Muslims, a public intellectual, writer and reporter Navid Kermani (* 1967), and especially his attitude to an open dialogue with Christianity. He brings closer his simplified biography, academic career, which he alternates with a work of reporter, who comments on the current questions of Europe and of the whole World, particularly with the connection to what goes on in the Middle East and the author also introduces his writings. He analyses, in detail, his book Unbelieving astonishment. About Christianity, which deals with his view on Christianity via fine art. He shows the great potential in a dialogue between the Christians and the Muslims and the role, which the Muslims can play for the Christian self-reflection.